Preparation and properties of Microcrystallinecellulose-fiber filled SBR/BR blends
Siti Salwa, Mohammad Shirajuddin
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Preparation and properties of non-microcrystalline cellulose (non-MCC) and microcrystalline cellulose (MCC) filled SBRIBR blends have been investigated. This research is divided into two main series, and each series undergo ageing test to the samples prepared. For first serie, the effect of different fillers, filler loading and ageing on properties of filled SBRIBR blends were studied. The results for curing characteristics, showed that both scorch time and cure time increased for non-MCC but decreased for MCC, whereas the torque and viscosity increased with incorporation of both filler in SBRIBR blends. MCC filled SBRIBR blends showed shorter scorch time and cure time but higher viscosity and torque value than non-MCC filled SBRIBR blends. The mechanical properties of MCC filled SBRIBR blends shows better tensile properties compared to non-MCC filled SBRIBR blends as filler loading increase up to 6 phr. The SEM result also shows that the fiber are well wetted and the pulled out of fiber from the rubber matrix is minimum up to 6 phr for both non-MCC and MCC filled SBRIBR blends. The thermal stability of MCC filled SBRIBR blends was better enhanced than that of non-MCC filled SBRIBR blends. For second series, the effect of reinforcing efficiency between hybrid MCC/silica (untreated and treated) filled SBRIBR have been investigated. At lower filler ratio of MCC, composite shows better tensile properties, thermal analysis, and resistance to aging, especially in the presence of (3- aminopropyl)trietoxysilane, 3-APE. However, the composites in the presence of coupling 3-APE show lower tensile properties at higher filler ratio of MCC, 10/0. The SEM result of hybrid MCC/untreated silica and MCC/treated silica shows many holes remaining after the filler are pulled out from the rubber matrix and un-wetted filler on the surface particularly at highest silica content (0/10). From the thermal analysis observation, the MCC/treated silica filled SBRIBR blends show better thermal stability compared than MCC/untreated silica filled SBRIBR blends. Tensile properties for MCC and non-MCC filled SBRIBR blends, hybrid MCC/untreated silica and MCC/treated silica filled SBRIBR blends after ageing shows lower value than before ageing. From the SEM observation, the surfaces of all composites were remarkably changed to rougher surface with continuous crack formation compared than all composites before ageing. The thermal stability for all composites after ageing is lower than composites before ageing.