Optimization of Cerbera odollam extraction yield using Microwave-assisted extraction (MAE) for antimicrobial studies
Nur Asyilah Akmal, Abdullah
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Mangroves have wide applications in folk medicine since ages ago due to presence of several bioactive compounds. This study aims to explore the antimicrobial activity in one of the mangrove species that is Cerbera odollam that are commonly found in India. C.odollam is a poisonous tree and also known as ‘suicide tree’. Leaves of the C. odollam were used in this study. Leaf extracts were prepared by using microwave- assisted extraction applying three different parameters that are sample size (1-10 g), extraction temperature (10-40 mL) and extraction time (3-30 minutes) and used for antimicrobial activity on gramnegative bacteria that was Salmonella sp. Response surface methodology was used to determine the optimum extraction conditions that give the maximum extraction yield and inhibition zone. Sample size (1-10 g), extraction time (3-30 minutes) and volume of solvent (10-40 mL) were the factors investigated. Experiments were designed according to the Central Composite Design with these three factors. Applying desirability function method, optimum operating conditions that produce maximum extraction yield were found to be sample size of 1.00 g, extraction time of 24.53 minutes and solvent volume of 16.08 mL. At this optimum point, the extraction yield were found to be 27%. Then, the operating conditions that produce the maximum inhibition zone that was 15 mm were sample size of 5.50 g, extraction time 16.50 minutes and solvent volume of 33.92 mL. Phytochemical test were done to analyze the active- bio-compound present in the leaves of the C. odollam. Phytochemical analysis of ethanolic extract of C. odollam leaves indicated the presence of alkaloid, phenol, steroid, tannin and terpenoid.