Comparative efficacy of biofeedback interventions in predicting improvements in bilateral soccer shooting performance
Nurfarrah Ezzaty, Mohd Zahir
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The beneficial impact of the differential biofeedback intervention technique on modification in autonomic competence, as well as the ultimate impact on bilateral shooting ability, were studied on young and competitive male soccer players. A total of 45 young high-performing soccer players in the age range of 18 to 24 years were recruited. At first, the players were subjected to baseline evaluation of psychomotor (i.e., reaction time – RT), physiological (viz. resting heart-rate; VO2Max, electrical muscle potentiality, etc.), and psychobiological indices (such as skin conductance components – latency, amplitude and recovery time). Thereafter, they were equally categorized into: Control Group, Experimental Group I [who received skin conductance (Sc) biofeedback training], and Experimental Group II [who received electromyography (EMG) biofeedback intervention training]. Participants of the experimental groups were subjected to their respective interventions (Sc & EMG biofeedback intervention training), which were imparted for 24 sessions (15 mins/day; 2 days/week for 12 weeks). After six weeks of intervention, mid-term evaluation of all of the aforementioned parameters (assessed during baseline evaluation) was performed. Thereafter, intervention sessions continued following the identical protocol for six weeks. At the end of the 12th week, a post-intervention assessment on all of the psychological, psychomotor and psychobiological variables was carried out on all of the participants to verify the effect of training on dependent measures. Post-intervention analyses revealed improvements in physiological, psychobiological and performance parameters, which could be rationally attributed to the differential biofeedback therapeutic interventions introduced to the experimental groups. The outcome suggested that both interventions facilitated improvement in bilateral shooting ability, while in-depth analyses clarified that a higher extent of autonomic recovery emerged as the most significant factor facilitating shooting ability in the experimental groups.