The origin of the science of Ilmu Al-Kalam
Reyadh Nofan, Al-Adwan
Azizi, Abu Bakar
M. A. Yasmin Maher, El-Jamai
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Islamic theology or Ilmu al-Kalam, was established in an attempt to understand faith and religion by logical reasoning (rational proof and evidence) instead of relying on revealed texts. Logical reasoning was used to prove the origins of faith and basis of religion. Ilmu al-Kalam developed until it branched out into various sections and groups. These groups took Ilmu al-Kalam as their source to prove the fundamentals of religion and various matters of belief. As a result of this logical and reasoned development, there were supporters and opposers. The supporters developed Ilmu al-Kalam into what it is today and the opposers considered this heresy and relied on traditional revelation. When researching the starting point of Ilmu al-Kalam, many scholars and authors had varied opinions on when exactly this science was originated. Some events in Islamic history are considered crucial turning points in the development of Kalam. This paper will clarify the general meaning of theology, define Kalam, its origin, and its effect on Islamic tradition.