Contributions of sala mango peel powder as a new ingredient to physicochemical properties of biscuit (SMP) powder
Nurul Syuhada, Hj. Baharudin
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Mango peel is a major by-product obtained during processing of mango products besides mango seed. In the present study, mango peel was incorporated into biscuits and improvement in the nutraceutical properties of the biscuits was studied. Response surface methodology (RSM) was used to determine the optimum level of Sala mango peel powder (MPP) and butter in producing an acceptable Sala mango peel (SMP) biscuit. Sala MPP and butter were used as independent variables which affect the mango peel biscuit’s physicochemical characteristic include moisture, protein, fat, ash, crude fiber, carbohydrate, caloric value (kcal/100g) and also the physical characteristics such as diameter, thickness, spread ration and texture analysis. SMP Biscuit was found to have significantly higher (p<0.05) moisture content, 2.33 % than the control biscuit, 1.99 %. However, protein content of SMP Biscuit significantly decreased (p<0.05), 5.63 % respectively as compared to the control biscuit 8.96 %. Besides that, SMP Biscuit contained 10.23 % fat which also was significantly higher (p<0.05) than the control biscuit, 9.78 %. The crude fiber content also increased significantly (p<0.05) from 1.98 % for control biscuit to 4.97% for SMP biscuit with incorporation of 16.25 % MPP. For texture analysis, hardness of SMP Biscuit significantly higher (p<0.05), 2414.95 g compared to control biscuit, 2076.74 g. This happen may be due to relatively higher water content in Sala MPP incorporated dough. From this study, it was shown that the optimum level Sala mango peel powder (MPP) and butter in producing an acceptable SMP biscuit found to be 16.25 % and 54.13 g, respectively.