The influence of surface types on foot kinematics during running and walking: a systematic review
Noor Arifah Azwani, Abdul Yamin
Khairul Salleh, Basaruddin
Wan Mohd Radzi, Rusli
Ahmad Faizal, Salleh
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Variations in running or walking surfaces may contribute to injury, due to the modification of lower extremity motion depending on surface conditions. Limited sources clearly identify that injuries can be caused by altering foot kinematics on numerous surface types. The purpose of this review paper is to identify the relationship between type of surface and foot kinematics whilst running or walking. The search strategy was completed via the Science Direct database and manual searching using a reference list of the reviewed articles. The quality of the reviewed articles was identified via methodological quality assessment. Twelve full-text articles were involved in the quality assessment out of a total of 1455 citations yielded at the beginning of the electronic search. Most of the reviewed papers classified as “high quality” did so by providing sufficient information on research objectives, study design, equipment design, study interest, main outcomes as well as key findings. The majority of the reviewed articles espoused that foot kinematics changing in relation to running or walking surface type and the category of participant. The application of dynamic modelling and finite element analysis was recommended to identify the injury in detail. Thus, further research is suggested to enhance knowledge of injuries caused by running or walking on different surfaces.