Composting of solid waste by using Indigenous microorganisms (IMO)
Siti Noor Baya, Khalib
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Composting is a process for the treatment of organic solid waste and the biological decomposition of raw compost materials to form compost. The utilization of organic additives during composting of organic solid waste will produce an environmentally product of compost and can shorten the process. The objectives of this study were to characterize the chemical and biological properties of prepared indigenous microorganisms (IMO) consists of pH, temperature, moisture content and identification of bacteria, physico-chemical changes during the composting process; pH, temperature, moisture content, carbon: nitrogen ratio, total nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium and to study the productivity of mustard greens plant using the product of compost in term of; plant height and soil characteristics. Five phases involved during the preparation of indigenous microorganisms (IMO) with different materials added in each phase. There are seven different ratios used during composting; 2:3:1 (garden waste compost 1), 3:2:1 (garden waste compost 2), 2:2:1 (garden waste compost 3), 2:0:1 (control garden waste), 2:4:1 (food waste compost 1), 4:2:1 (food waste compost 2) and 4:4:1 (food waste compost 3). Each treatment was triplicate over 60 days and 30-48 days of garden and food waste composting duration. The final compost was applied to the mustard greens plant about 30 days with triplicate. Acidic condition of pH obtained during IMO preparation. The temperature was constant at the first and second phases with 28oC but increases starting at the third phase, from 32 to 38oC. At the fourth phase, the temperature was in a range of 36 to 48oC. Temperature of 30oC was recorded at the starting of fifth phase, increased and then also decreases to 32oC. Moisture content in the first, second and third phase of IMO was in a range of 35 to 42% and then was decreased until phase four IMO, in a range of 30 to 37 %. At phase five, the moisture content increases slightly and then constant at a range of 35 to 46%. Result for identification of bacteria shown that Bacillus sp involved in first and second phase of IMO. In phase III of IMO preparation, Bacillus thurigiensis was obtained. Proteus sp and Bordetella sp involved in fourth and fifth phase of IMO. During the composting process, all the parameters of IMO-compost obtained in a range like; pH value 5-9, temperature 29-55oC, moisture content 35-75%, nitrogen 1-7%, phosphorus 4-15%, potassium 11-23% and C:N ratio 5-20 . The best ratio of garden waste composting was at treatments of GWC2 and FWC3 for food waste due to their higher temperature of 48oC and 55oC and the end of C: N ratio of 12 and 15 recorded during the process. Application of IMO-compost towards mustard greens plant also shown a significant result for plant growth using final compost ratio GWC2 and FWC3 but there are some problems with insect pests that need to be concerned during plantation.