Psychological profiles of Indonesian elite swimmers
Olievia Prabandini, Mulyana
Toho Cholik, Muthohir
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In Indonesia, sports psychology is one of the branches of psychology that plays a vital role in improving athletic performance and therefore, it is not confined within the boundaries of academic research. Even though a number of studies have been carried out in recent years on the psychological profiles of elite swimmers, there are only a few studies which provide empirical data on the psychological profiles of elite athletes. Owing to the importance of the relationship between the psychological characteristics and sports performance of athletes, the the objective of this study is to determine the psychological profiles of Indonesian elite swimmers. Two sets of factors are identified from a comprehensive literature review, namely motivational and emotional factors. However, based on the literature review, it is observed that the combination of motivational and emotional factors has not been investigated in most studies, particularly the relationship between these factors and the psychological characteristics of Indonesian elite swimmers. In this study, we identified the psychological characteristics of this specific group of athletes using personal interviews and focus group discussions with 14 Indonesian elite swimmers (comprising seven males and seven females) and eight coaches from the East Java Province. Based on the results, we conclude that that there are six psychological characteristics of Indonesian elite swimmers: (1) self-confidence, (2) optimism, (3) resilience, (4) hope, (5) emotional stability, and (6) motivation for achievement.