This page provides access to research works by Assoc. Prof. Dr. Kenneth Sundaraj, currently an Associate Professor of School of Mechatronic Engineering, Universiti Malaysia Perlis (UniMAP).

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Skills and Expertise: Muscle Function, Electromyography, Muscle, Rehabilitation, Sports Medicine, Physiology, Motion Analysis, Exercise Science, Sport Biomechanics, Sports Science, Virtual Reality, Image Processing, Robotics, Kinesiology

Recent Submissions

  • Gait disorder rehabilitation using vision and non-vision based sensors: a systematic review 

    Asraf, Ali; Kenneth, Sundaraj; R. Badlishah, Ahmad; Nizam, Ahamed; Anamul Islam (Association of Basic Medical Sciences of Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina, 2012)
    Even though the amount of rehabilitation guidelines has never been greater, uncertainty continues to arise regarding the efficiency and effectiveness of the rehabilitation of gait disorders. This question has been hindered ...
  • Significance of the electromyographic analysis of the upper limb muscles of cricket bowlers: Recommendations from studies of overhead-throwing athletes 

    Nizam Uddin, Ahamed; Sundaraj, Kenneth, Assoc. Prof. Dr.; R. Badlishah, Ahmad, Prof. Dr.; Matiur J., Rahman; Md. Ashraf, Ali; Md. Anamul, Islam (World Scientific Publishing Company., 2014-08)
    The purpose of this study was twofold: (i) to review the existing literature on electromyographic (EMG) analysis of the upper limb muscles of present overhead-throwing (OT) athletes during throwing and of cricket bowlers ...
  • Inter-hemispheric EEG coherence analysis in Parkinson's disease: Assessing brain activity during emotion processing 

    Yuvaraj, Rajamanickam; Murugappan, Muthusamy, Dr.; Norlinah, Mohamed Ibrahim, Dr.; Sundaraj, Kenneth, Prof. Dr.; Mohammad Iqbal, Omar@Ye Htut, Assoc. Prof. Dr.; Khairiyah, Mohamad; Palaniappan, Ramaswamy; Satiyan, Marimuthu (Springer-Verlag Wien, 2014-06)
    Parkinson's disease (PD) is not only characterized by its prominent motor symptoms but also associated with disturbances in cognitive and emotional functioning. The objective of the present study was to investigate the ...
  • A software prototype based emotional impairments detection in neurological disorders patients using wireless EEG signals 

    Murugappan, Muthusamy, Dr.; Yuvaraj, Rajamanickam; Norlinah, Mohamed Ibrahim, Dr.; Kenneth, Sundaraj, Dr.; Mohd Iqbal, Omar, Dr.; Khairiyah, Mohamad (Universiti Malaysia Perlis (UniMAP)School of Mechatronic Engineering, 2014-05)
    Social communication and the ability to respond emotional signals are essential for meaningful Interpersonal Iinteractions
  • Emotion classification in Parkinson's disease by higher-order spectra and power spectrum features using EEG signals: a comparative study 

    Yuvaraj, Rajamanickam; Murugappan, M., Dr.; Norlinah, Mohamed Ibrahim; Mohammad Iqbal, Omar@Ye Htut, Assoc. Prof. Dr.; Sundaraj, Kenneth, Prof. Dr.; Khairiyah, Mohamad; Palaniappan, Ramaswamy; Satiyan, Marimuthu (World Scientific Publishing Co. Pte Ltd, 2014-03)
    Deficits in the ability to process emotions characterize several neuropsychiatric disorders and are traits of Parkinson's disease (PD), and there is need for a method of quantifying emotion, which is currently performed ...
  • On the analysis of EEG power, frequency and asymmetry in Parkinson's disease during emotion processing 

    Yuvaraj, Rajamanickam; Murugappan, M., Dr.; Norlinah, Mohamed Ibrahim; Mohd Iqbal, Omar@Ye Htut, Assoc. Prof. Dr.; Sundaraj, Kenneth, Prof. Dr.; Khairiyah, Mohamad; Palaniappan, Ramaswamy; Mesquita, Edgar; Satiyan, Marimuthu (BioMed Central Ltd., 2014-03)
    Objective: While Parkinson's disease (PD) has traditionally been described as a movement disorder, there is growing evidence of disruption in emotion information processing associated with the disease. The aim of this study ...
  • Vision-based motion tracking rehabilitation system for gait disorder 

    Md. Asraf, Ali; Sundaraj, Kenneth, Assoc. Prof. Dr.; R. Badlishah, Ahmad, Prof. Dr.; Nizam Uddin, Ahamed; Md. Anamul, Islam (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE), 2012-11)
    Aim of the present study was to review the articles for the vision-based motion tracking, usually applied on the rehabilitation systems of gait disorder. Based on our ultimate goal, we searched several articles, available ...
  • Non-invasive electromyography-based fatigue detection and performance analysis on m. biceps brachii muscle 

    Nizam Uddin, Ahamed; Sundaraj, Kenneth, Prof. Dr.; R. Badlishah, Ahmad, Prof. Dr.; Matiur J., Rahman; Md. Anamul, Islam; Asraf, Ali (IEEE Conference Publications, 2013)
    Muscle fatigue occurs most frequently due to repetitive movements in our day-to-day activities. The powerful use of muscles might cause a decline in performance. In this study, the effects of muscle fatigue involving only ...
  • A systematic review of phacoemulsification cataract surgery in virtual reality simulators 

    Chee, Kiang Lam; Sundaraj, Kenneth, Assoc. Prof. Dr.; Mohd Nazri, Sulaiman (Medicina, 2013)
    The aim of this study was to review the capability of virtual reality simulators in the application of phacoemulsification cataract surgery training. Our review included the scientific publications on cataract surgery ...
  • Real-time face detection using dynamic background subtraction 

    Sundaraj, Kenneth, Prof. Dr. (World Scientific and Engineering Academy and Society, 2008)
    Face biometrics is an automated method of recognizing a person’s face based on a physiological or behavioral characteristic. Face recognition works by first obtaining an image of a person. This process is usually known ...
  • Homogeneous surface metrology using structured fringe projection 

    Sundaraj, Kenneth, Prof. Dr.; Retnasamy, V (World Scientific and Engineering Academy and Society, 2008)
    Automated visual inspection (AVI) systems are playing important roles in quality inspection within the electronic industry. Most existing AVIs are single overhead cameras. Such systems are incapable of detecting 3D surface ...
  • Biceps activity EMG pattern recognition using neural networks 

    Sundaraj, Kenneth, Prof. Dr. (World Scientific and Engineering Academy and Society, 2009)
    This paper presents a study of EMG signals pattern on an activated muscle. The main rationale is that the pattern of the EMG signal produced may differ depending on the activity of the muscle movement. Therefore, the ...
  • Automated visual inspection for missing or misaligned components in SMT assembly 

    Sundaraj, Kenneth, Prof. Dr. (World Scientific and Engineering Academy and Society, 2008)
    Automated visual inspection (AVI) is becoming an integral part of modern surface mount technology assembly (SMTa) process. With the increase in demand, high-volume production has to cater for both the quantity and zero ...
  • Enhanced face detection for biometric security 

    Sundaraj, Kenneth, Prof. Dr. (World Scientific and Engineering Academy and Society, 2008)
    Biometrics is an automated method of recognizing a person based on a physiological or behavioral characteristic. Face recognition works by first obtaining an image of a person. This process is usually known as face ...
  • Wireless communication in robot soccer: a case study of existing technologies 

    Nadarajah, Sivadev; Sundaraj, Kenneth, Prof. Dr. (IEEE Conference Publications, 2012)
    This paper will explain about the communication technology between the host PC and the robots that are used in currently used by robot soccer manufacturer and also institutes that have robot soccer systems. It will explain ...
  • Vision-based motion tracking rehabilitation system for gait disorder 

    Md. Asraf, Ali; Sundaraj, Kenneth, Assoc. Prof. Dr.; R. Badlishah, Ahmad, Prof. Dr.; Nizam Uddin, Ahamed; Md. Anamul, Islam (IEEE Conference Publications, 2012)
    Aim of the present study was to review the articles for the vision-based motion tracking, usually applied on the rehabilitation systems of gait disorder. Based on our ultimate goal, we searched several articles, available ...
  • Vision in robot soccer: a review 

    Nadarajah, Sivadev; Sundaraj, Kenneth, Prof. Dr. (Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht, 2013)
    This paper will give readers an overview of the vision system used on Robot Soccer systems. Firstly, it lists out the positioning of the cameras that are used on a robot soccer system both for FIRA and RoboCup. Here various ...
  • Virtual simulation of eyeball and extraocular muscle reaction during cataract surgery 

    Chee, Kiang Lam; Sundaraj, Kenneth, Prof. Dr.; M. Nazri, Sulaiman (Elsevier Ltd., 2012)
    Master-apprentice teaching method is most commonly used in medical education for all the time in transferring the surgical skill from a professional surgeon to a medical practitioner. The current technology has the ability ...
  • Virtual reality simulator for phacoemulsification cataract surgery education and training 

    Chee, Kiang Lam; Sundaraj, Kenneth, Prof. Dr.; M. Nazri, Sulaiman (Elsevier Ltd., 2013)
    Computer systems are taking an important role in the field of medicine with the introduction of electronic biomedical devices in diagnosis and treatment, where medical records obtained from the devices are documented and ...
  • Variability in surface electromyography of right arm biceps brachii muscles between male adolescent, vicenarian and tricenarian with distinct electrode placement 

    Nizam Uddin, Ahamed; Sundaraj, Kenneth, Assoc. Prof. Dr.; R. Badlishah, Ahmad, Prof. Dr.; Matiur Rahaman, S.A.M.; Md. Anamul, Islam; Md. Asraf, Ali (IEEE Conference Publications, 2012)
    The aim of this paper was to verify and measure the variability in surface electromyography (sEMG) of upper arm biceps brachii muscle during isometric contraction. Nine healthy right arm dominated males from three age-groups ...

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